Publications

Media coverage, scientific publications, and other public documents regarding the CarbFix project.

CarbFix in the Media

The results of the CarbFix project have received worldwide attention. Following is a list of some of the media coverage the project has had in the past years.

 

700 meters below Iceland, a company may have found a solution to the world's climate woes

UpWorthy - October 13, 2017

 

The world’s first “negative emissions” plant has begun operation—turning carbon dioxide into stone

Quartz - October 12, 2017

 

Revolutionary Equipment Turns Carbon Dioxide to Stone, Fighting Climate Change

Iceland Review - October 12, 2017

 

Iceland project marries carbon capture with geological storage

The Engineer - October 12, 2017

 

Climeworks flick switch on 'world first' atmospheric carbon capture plant

Buisness green - October 11, 2017

 

From thin air to stone: greenhouse gas test starts in Iceland

Reuters - October 11, 2017

 

Emissions: We have the technology

Nature - October 11, 2017

 

Iceland Carbon Dioxide Storage Project Locks Away Gas, Fast

New York Times – June 9, 2016

 

This Iceland Plant Just Turned Carbon Dioxide Into Rock—and They Did It Super Fast

Washington Post – June 9 2016

 

How One Country Is Making Rocks Out of Air Pollution

National Geographic – June 9, 2016

 

How to Capture Carbon Dioxide From a Power Plant and Turn It to Stone

Los Angeles Times – June 9, 2016

 

Experiment Turns Waste CO2 to Stone

BBC World Service – June 9, 2016

 

In Breakthrough, CO2 Turned to Stone in Iceland

Guardian – June 9, 2016

 

Turning Air Into Stone

The Economist – June 9, 2016

 

Power Plant Turns Its Carbon Emissions to Stone

CNBC – June 9, 2016

 

In a First, Power Plant Turns Carbon Emissions to Stone

Phys.org – June 9, 2016

 

An Icelandic Power Plant Is Turning Carbon Emissions to Stone

Forbes – June 9, 2016

 

Scientists Turn Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Stone

Scientific American – June 10, 2016

 

Iceland Power Plant Turns Carbon Emissions to Rock

Times of India – June 9, 2016

 

Deep Below Iceland, Scientists Turn Heat-Trapping Carbon to Stone

Japan Times – June 9, 2016

 

Scientific Papers

 

2017

Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Oelkers, EH, Mesfin, K. et al. (2017) The chemistry and saturation states of subsurface fluids during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 58, pp 87-102.

 

2016

Matter, JM, Stute, M, Snæbjörnsdottir, SO. et al. (2016) Rapid carbon mineralization for permanent disposal of anthropogeni carbon dioxide emissions. Science, Volume 352, Issue 6291, pp 1312-1314.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Gislason SR. (2017) CO2 Storage Potential of Basaltic Rocks Offshore Iceland. Energy Procedia, Volume 86, pp 371-380.

 

2015

Sigfusson, B., Gislason, S.R. Matter, J.M. et al. (2015). Solving the carbon-dioxide buoyancy challenge: The design and field testing of a dissolved CO2 injection system. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 37 213–219.

Aradóttir, E.S.P., Gunnarsson, I., Sigfusson, B. et al. (2015). Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy: Subsurface Sequestration of Sour Gas Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.

Aradóttir ESP et al. (2015) Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy Utilization: Capturing and Sequestering CO2 and H2S Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants, Transport in Porous Media, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 61-84

Juliusson B.M., Gunnarsson, I. Matthiasdottir, K.V. et al. (2015) Tackling the Challenge of H2S Emissions. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.

 

2014

Gislason SR and Oelkers EH. (2014).  Carbon Storage in Basalt. Science 344, 373-374.

Snæbjörnsdóttir SÓ, Wiese F, Fridriksson Th, Ármansson H., Einarsson GM, Gislason SR. (2014). CO2 storage potential of basaltic rocks in Iceland and the oceanic ridges.  Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4585-4600.

Matter, J.M., Stute, M., Hall, J. et al. (2014). Monitoring permanent CO2 storage by in situ mineral carbonation using a reactive tracer technique. Energy Procedia 63, 4180-4185 .

Gislason S.R et al. (2014). Rapid solubility and mineral storage of CO2 in basalt Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4561–4574.

Galeczka I. M., D. Wolff-Boenisch, E. H. Oelkers, S. R. Gislason (2014). An experimental study of basaltic glass–H2O-CO2 interaction at 22 and 50° C: Implications for subsurface storage of CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 126, 123-145.

Galeczka I. M., , E.H. Oelkers, S.R. Gislason (2014).  The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 273, 41–57.

Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2014). Experimental determination of plagioclase dissolution rates as a function of its composition and pH at 22°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139 (2014) 154–172

Olsson J, Stipp SLS, Makovicky E, and Gislason SR. (2014) .  Metal scavenging by calcium carbonate at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano: A carbon capture and storage analogue.  Chemical Geology 384 135–148.

Schultz L.N., Dideriksen K., Lakshtanov L., Hakim S.S., Müter D., Haußer F., Bechgaard K. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) From nanometer aggregates to micrometer crystals: Insight into the coarsening mechanism of calcite. Cryst. Growth Dec. 14, 552–558.

Stockmann GJ, Wolff-Boenisch D, Bovet N et al. (2014). The role of silicate surfaces on calcite precipitation kinetics. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 135 231-250.

Tobler D.J., Rodriguez Blanco J.D., Dideriksen K., Sand K.K., Bovet N., Benning L.G. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) The effect of aspartic acid and glycine on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability and crystallization. Geochemistry of the Earth’s Surface meeting, GES-10. Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 10, 143 – 148.

 

2013

Alfredsson H. A., Oelkers E. H., Hadrarson B. S., Franzson H., Gunlaugsson E. and Gislason S. R. (2013) The geology and water chemistry of the Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland carbon storage site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 12, 399–418.

Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigfússon B, Sonnenthal EL, Björnsson G and Jónsson H. (2013). Dynamics of basaltic glass dissolution – Capturing microscopic effects in continuum scale models. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 121 311–327.

Alfredsson, H.A.,  Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R., (2013). The predicted fate of CO2 injected into basaltic rock. New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2012 Proceedings 19 - 21 November 2012 Auckland, New Zealand, 5 pp.

Declercq J, Diedrich T, Perrot M, Gislason SR, Oelkers EH (2013). Experimental determination of rhyolitic glass dissolution rates at 40–200 C and 2 < pH < 10.1. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 100.

Declercq J, Bosc O, Oelkers EH (2013). Do organic ligands affect forsterite dissolution rates? Applied Geochemistry 39 69-77.

Galeczka I., Wolff-Boenisch D. and Gislason S. R. (2013) Experimental studies of basalt–H2O–CO2 interaction with a high pressure column flow reactor: the mobility of metals. Energy Procedia 37, 5823–5833.

Galeczka IM, D Wolff-Boenisch, T Jonsson, B Sigfusson, A Stefansson, SR Gislason (2013).  A novel high pressure column flow reactor for experimental studies of CO2 mineral storage. Applied Geochemistry 30, 91-104.

Gunnarsson I, Aradóttir ES, Sigfússon B, Gunnlaugsson E and Júlíusson BM, (2013), Geothermal Gas Emission From Hellisheidi and Nesjavellir Power Plants, Iceland, GRC Transactions, Vol. 37, 785-789.

Stockmann, G.J., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2013). Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 2: Diopside. Chemical Geology 337–338, 55-66. 

 

2012

Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L., Björnsson G. and Jónsson H. (2012) Multidimensional reactive transport modeling of CO2 mineral sequestration in basalts at the Hellisheidi geothermal field, Iceland Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control9, 24-40.

Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L. and Jónsson H. I. (2012) Development and evaluation of a thermodynamic dataset for phases of interest in CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Chem. Geol. 304–305, 26–38.

Aradóttir E.S.P et al. (2012) Towards cleaner geothermal energy  utilization: capturing and sequestering CO2 and H2S emissions from geothermal power plants. PROCEEDINGS, TOUGH Symposium 2012, Lawrence Berekeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, September 17-19.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). CO2-water-basalt interaction. Low temperature experiments and implications for CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 81, 129-152.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Mineralogical aspects of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration - An experimental study at 75 to 250 °C and elevated pCO2. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 146–159.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Experiments and geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 10–28.

Helgi A. Alfredsson, D. W. Boenisch and A. Stefánsson. (2011). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks in Iceland: Development of a piston-type downhole sampler for CO2 rich fluids and tracers. Energy Procedia 4, 3510–3517.

Stockmann G.J., Liudmila S. Shirokova, Oleg S. Pokrovsky et al. (2012).  Does the presence of heterotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas reactants affect basaltic glass dissolution rates?  Chemical Geology 296-297, 1–18.

 

2011

Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigurðardóttir, H. Sigfússon, B. and Gunnlaugsson, E. (2011). CarbFix: A CCS pilot project imitating and accelerating natural CO2 sequestratioon. Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1: 105-118. 

Stefánsson, A, Arnórsson, S, Gunnarsson, I. et al. (2011). The geochemistry and sequestration of H2S into the geothermal system at Hellisheidi, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 202, 179-188.

Flaathen T. K., Oelkers E. H., Gislason S. R. and Aagaard P. (2011) The effect of dissolved sulphate on calcite precipitation kinetics and consequences for subsurface CO2 storage. Energy Procedia 4, 5037–5043.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2011. CO2–water–basalt interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4728–4751.

Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2011) An experimental study of crystalline basalt dissolution from 2 6 pH 6 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 5496–5509.

Matter JM, Broecker, W., Gislason, S. R. et al. (2011). The CarbFix Pilot Project – Storing Carbon Dioxide in Basalt. Energy Procedia 4, 5579–5585.

Ragnheiðardóttir E, Sigurðardóttir H, Kristjánsdóttir H and Harveyd  W. (2011). Opportunities and challenges for CarbFix: An evaluation of capacities and costs for the pilot scale mineralization sequestration project at Hellisheidi, Iceland and beyond. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 5: 1065–1072.

Stockmann G.J., D. Wolff-Boenisch, S.R. Gislason, E.H. Oelkers. (2011) Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 1: Basaltic glass, Chemical Geology, 284 306-316.

Wolff-Boenisch, D., Wenau, S., Gislason, S, and Oelkers, E. H. (2011). Dissolution of basalts and peridotite in the presence of organic and inorganic ligands, in seawater and under pCO2 pressure at 25°C. Implications for mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochima Acta 75, 5510-5525.

Wolff-Boenisch, D:. (2011). On the buffer capacity of CO2-charged seawater used for carbonation and subsequent mineral sequestration. Energy Procedia, 4, 3738–3745.

 

2010

Gislason, S.R., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Stefansson, A. et al. (2010). Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in basalt: A pre-injection overview of the CarbFix project. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, 537-545.

Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2010). The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rates. Chem. Geol. 277, 345–354.

 

2009

Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R. and Oelkers E.H. (2009). Chemical evolution of the Mt. Hekla, Iceland, groundwaters: A natural analogue for CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Applied Geochemistry, 24, 463-474.

Matter, J.M., Broecker, W.S., Stute, M. et al. (2009). Permanent Carbon Dioxide Storage into Basalt: The CarbFix Pilot Project, Iceland. Energy Procedia, 1, 3641-3646.

 

2008

Alfredsson, H.A., Hardarson, B.S., Franzson, H., Gislason, S.R. (2008). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rock at the Hellisheidi site in SW Iceland:Stratigraphy and chemical composition of the rocks at the injection site. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 1-5.

Flaathen, T.K., Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R. (2008).The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rate. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 39-41. 

Gudbrandsson, S., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H.(2008). Dissolution rates of crystalline basalt at pH 4 and 10 and 25-75°C. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 155-158. 

Gysi, A.P. and Stefánsson, A. (2008). Numerical modelling of CO2-water-basalt interaction. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 55-59.

Oelkers E.H., S.R. Gislason, and J. Matter (2008). Mineral Carbonation of CO2, Elements, Vol. 4, 331-335.

Rezvani Khalilabad, M., Axelsson, G. and  Gislason, S.R. (2008). Aquifer characterization with tracer test technique; permanent CO2 sequestration into basalt, SW Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 121 125. 

Stockmann, G., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H. (2008). Dissolution of diopside and basaltic glass: the effect of carbonate coating. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 135-139.

 

PhD Theses

Alfredsson, H.A. (2015). Water-rock interaction during mineral carbonation and volcanic ash weathering. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Aradottir, E.S.P. (2011). Reactive transport models of CO2-water-basalt interaction and applications to CO2 mineral sequestration. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Flaathen, T.K. (2009). Water-rock interaction during CO2 sequestration in basalt. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Galeczka I. (2013). Experimental and field studies of basalt-carbon dioxide interaction. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. 

Gudbrandsson, S. (2013). Experimental weathering rates of alunimum-silicates. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. 

Gysi, A.P. (2011). CO2-water-basalt Interaction: Reaction Path Experiments and Numerical Modeling. University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó. (2017). Mineral storage of carbon in basaltic rocks. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Stockmann, G.J. (2012). Experimental study of Basalt carbonatization. Ph.D. thesis, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

 

MSc Thesis

Aaberg, I. (2013) Characterization of olivine reacted with supercritical CO2 using surface sensitive techniques - Implications for mineral carbonation. University of Copenhagen. 75 p.

Rezvani Khalilabad, M. 2008. Characterization of the Hellisheidi-Threngsli CO2 sequestration Target Aquifier by Tracer Testing. Oddi, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2008. ISBN: 978-9979-68-252-3. ISSN: 1670-7427

Ragnheidardottir, E.V. 2010. Costs, Profitability and Potential Gains of the CarbFix Program. pp 107.

 

BSc Theses

Madsen, E.K. (2014) Limestone interaction with supercritical CO2: Investigating the implications on limestone morphology and composition. University of Copenhagen. 35 p.

Petersen, M. L. (2014) Underground storage of carbon dioxide: Investigating the release of trace elements from limestone. University of Copenhagen. 42 p.

Kragsberger, R.T. (2014) Reactivity of calcite in contact with water and supercritical CO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.

Weihe, S.H.C. (2014) Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Investigating mineral dissolution and the release of trace elements from limestone upon interaction with scCO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.

Data

 

As a part of the FP7 funded CarbFix project (no. 283148), the CarbFix team has created improved computer accessible databases describing the thermodynamics and kinetics of fluid-rock interaction during carbon-capture and storage efforts. The databases are open source and can be downloaded below.

Thermodynamic database

A thermodynamic dataset describing 36 mineral reactions of interest for CO2–water–basalt interaction associated with CO2 mineral sequestration was assessed and generated. Mineral selection for the dataset was based on extensive review of natural analogs of water–basalt interaction at low and elevated CO2 conditions. Widely used thermodynamic databases did not contain the mineral assemblage needed for successfully simulating the alteration processes observed in nature as important primary and secondary minerals were found to be missing.

The EQ3/6 V7.2b database was the primary source for aqueous equilibrium constants in the developed dataset but reactions for four missing Al-hydroxy complexes were added. Recently published thermodynamic data were compiled for most of the minerals considered in this study. Mineral solubility constants obtained directly from measurements were compiled to the dataset without modification but SUPCRT92 was used for computing solubility constants when such data was not available. To verify that the presented dataset can capture alterations observed in nature, simulations of CO2–water–basalt interaction were carried out at low and elevated CO2 conditions and compared to observed basalt alteration in Iceland and Greenland. Overall simulated and observed alteration are in close agreement, both at low and elevated CO2 conditions, suggesting the dataset to be well suited for simulations of e.g. CO2–water–basalt interaction associated with CO2 mineral sequestration in basalts. 

Click the document below to access the thermodynamic database.

PDF iconThermodynamic database

 

Kinetic database

A general database of the current state of knowledge of the rates of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions has been created by the CarbFix team over the past three years.  The database currently contains more than 110 rock forming minerals, and has been put into general form such that it can be readily applied by the scientific community to assess the potential of fluid-rock interactions during carbon capture and storage efforts. 

This database was created by first collecting and correlating the existing kinetic rate data available in the scientific literature.  In cases where adequate fits of these data were already available in the literature, such fits were adopted in this study.  In other cases we have sought to provide a quantitative description of these data consistent with what is known about the dissolution and/or precipitation mechanism of the minerals.  The resulting and adopted equations have been incorporated into a PHREEQC enabled computer script to all it to be applied directly in conjunction with this geochemical modelling code.  Note that PHREEQC is widely available geochemical computer modelling code, originally created at the US Geological Survey and available free to any potential user via the web, 

Click the document below to access the kinetic database. 

Photos

 

The CarbFix field injection is located at Hellisheidi geothermal Power Plant in SW-Iceland. The power plant co-produces electricity and hot water from the Hengill central volcano and installed capacity of 300 MW electricity and 120 MW thermal. Without gas capture and injection, the power plant would emit about 40,000 tons CO2 and 12,000 tons H2S. The CO2 emissions amount to about 5% of what a coal fired power plant of the same size would emit. Currently about 25% of CO2 and 75% of H2S of the plant's production is being captured and injected into nearby basaltic formations, resulting in rapid and permanent disposal of the gases as carbonate and sulfide minerals. 

 

Hellisheidi Power Plant. Photo: Arni Saeberg.Hellisheidi Power Plant. Photo: Arni Saeberg.

 

Injection wells at Hellisheidi Power Plant. Photo: Martin StuteInjection wells at Hellisheidi Power Plant. Photo: Martin Stute

Core from injection site showing CO2 bearing carbonate minerals within basaltic host rock. Photo: Sandra O Snaebjornsdottir.Core from injection site showing CO2 bearing carbonate minerals within basaltic host rock. Photo: Sandra O Snaebjornsdottir.