Media coverage, scientific publications, and other public documents regarding the CarbFix project.
The results of the CarbFix project have received worldwide attention. Following is a list of some of the media coverage the project has had in the past years.
Bloomberg TV - July 3, 2018
BBC News - May 18, 2018
BBC World Service – April 30, 2018
Engineering and Technology – April 19, 2018
Carbon A list – October 14, 2017
Daily Mail – October 13, 2017
Newsweek – October 13, 2017
Tunisie Soir – October 13, 2017
UpWorthy - October 13, 2017
Quartz - October 12, 2017
Iceland Review - October 12, 2017
The Engineer - October 12, 2017
Buisness green - October 11, 2017
Reuters - October 11, 2017
Nature - October 11, 2017
Think Geoenergy - May 26, 2017
CNBC – November 17, 2016
PBS NewsHour – August 23, 2016
WITF-TV – August 23, 2016
Forbes – June 28, 2016
Daily Maverick – June 14, 2016
Digital Trends – June 13, 2016
The times of India – June 11, 2016
Science – June 10, 2016
Engadget - June 10, 2016
New York Times – June 9, 2016
Washington Post – June 9 2016
National Geographic – June 9, 2016
Los Angeles Times – June 9, 2016
BBC World Service – June 9, 2016
Guardian – June 9, 2016
The Economist – June 9, 2016
CNBC – June 9, 2016
Phys.org – June 9, 2016
Forbes – June 9, 2016
Scientific American – June 9, 2016
Times of India – June 9, 2016
Japan Times – June 9, 2016
Smithsonian – June 9, 2016
The New York Times – February 9, 2015
Scientific American – December 1, 2013
Scientific American – March 5, 2012
Inhabitat – September 7, 2011
Callow, B., Falcon Suarez, I., Ahmedc, S., Matter, J. (2018) Assessing the carbon Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of basalt using X-ray micro-CT and rock mechanics. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 70, pp. 146-156.
Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó., Gislason, S.R., Galeczka, I.M., Oelkers, E.H. (2018) Reaction path modelling of in-situ mineralisation of CO2 at the CarbFix site at Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 220, pp. 348-366.
Wolff-Boenisch, D., Galeczka, I. (2018). Flow-through reactor experiments on basalt-(sea)water-CO2reactions at 90 °C and neutral pH. What happens to the basalt pore space under post-injection conditions? International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 68, pp 176-190.
Trias, R., Ménez, B., le Campion, P., et al. (2017) High reactivity of deep biota under anthropogenic CO2 injection into basalt. Nature Communications, 8, 1063.
Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Oelkers, EH, Mesfin, K. et al. (2017) The chemistry and saturation states of subsurface fluids during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 58, pp 87-102.
Matter, JM, Stute, M, Snæbjörnsdottir, SO. et al. (2016) Rapid carbon mineralization for permanent disposal of anthropogeni carbon dioxide emissions. Science, Volume 352, Issue 6291, pp 1312-1314.
Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Gislason SR. (2017) CO2 Storage Potential of Basaltic Rocks Offshore Iceland. Energy Procedia, Volume 86, pp 371-380.
Sigfusson, B., Gislason, S.R. Matter, J.M. et al. (2015). Solving the carbon-dioxide buoyancy challenge: The design and field testing of a dissolved CO2 injection system. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 37 213–219.
Aradóttir, E.S.P., Gunnarsson, I., Sigfusson, B. et al. (2015). Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy: Subsurface Sequestration of Sour Gas Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.
Aradóttir ESP et al. (2015) Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy Utilization: Capturing and Sequestering CO2 and H2S Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants, Transport in Porous Media, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 61-84
Juliusson B.M., Gunnarsson, I. Matthiasdottir, K.V. et al. (2015) Tackling the Challenge of H2S Emissions. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.
Gislason SR and Oelkers EH. (2014). Carbon Storage in Basalt. Science 344, 373-374.
Snæbjörnsdóttir SÓ, Wiese F, Fridriksson Th, Ármansson H., Einarsson GM, Gislason SR. (2014). CO2 storage potential of basaltic rocks in Iceland and the oceanic ridges. Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4585-4600.
Matter, J.M., Stute, M., Hall, J. et al. (2014). Monitoring permanent CO2 storage by in situ mineral carbonation using a reactive tracer technique. Energy Procedia 63, 4180-4185 .
Gislason S.R et al. (2014). Rapid solubility and mineral storage of CO2 in basalt Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4561–4574.
Galeczka I. M., D. Wolff-Boenisch, E. H. Oelkers, S. R. Gislason (2014). An experimental study of basaltic glass–H2O-CO2 interaction at 22 and 50° C: Implications for subsurface storage of CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 126, 123-145.
Galeczka I. M., , E.H. Oelkers, S.R. Gislason (2014). The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 273, 41–57.
Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2014). Experimental determination of plagioclase dissolution rates as a function of its composition and pH at 22°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139 (2014) 154–172
Olsson J, Stipp SLS, Makovicky E, and Gislason SR. (2014) . Metal scavenging by calcium carbonate at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano: A carbon capture and storage analogue. Chemical Geology 384 135–148.
Schultz L.N., Dideriksen K., Lakshtanov L., Hakim S.S., Müter D., Haußer F., Bechgaard K. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) From nanometer aggregates to micrometer crystals: Insight into the coarsening mechanism of calcite. Cryst. Growth Dec. 14, 552–558.
Stockmann GJ, Wolff-Boenisch D, Bovet N et al. (2014). The role of silicate surfaces on calcite precipitation kinetics. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 135 231-250.
Tobler D.J., Rodriguez Blanco J.D., Dideriksen K., Sand K.K., Bovet N., Benning L.G. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) The effect of aspartic acid and glycine on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability and crystallization. Geochemistry of the Earth’s Surface meeting, GES-10. Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 10, 143 – 148.
Alfredsson H. A., Oelkers E. H., Hadrarson B. S., Franzson H., Gunlaugsson E. and Gislason S. R. (2013) The geology and water chemistry of the Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland carbon storage site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 12, 399–418.
Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigfússon B, Sonnenthal EL, Björnsson G and Jónsson H. (2013). Dynamics of basaltic glass dissolution – Capturing microscopic eﬀects in continuum scale models. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 121 311–327.
Alfredsson, H.A., Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R., (2013). The predicted fate of CO2 injected into basaltic rock. New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2012 Proceedings 19 - 21 November 2012 Auckland, New Zealand, 5 pp.
Declercq J, Diedrich T, Perrot M, Gislason SR, Oelkers EH (2013). Experimental determination of rhyolitic glass dissolution rates at 40–200 C and 2 < pH < 10.1. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 100.
Declercq J, Bosc O, Oelkers EH (2013). Do organic ligands affect forsterite dissolution rates? Applied Geochemistry 39 69-77.
Galeczka I., Wolff-Boenisch D. and Gislason S. R. (2013) Experimental studies of basalt–H2O–CO2 interaction with a high pressure column flow reactor: the mobility of metals. Energy Procedia 37, 5823–5833.
Galeczka IM, D Wolff-Boenisch, T Jonsson, B Sigfusson, A Stefansson, SR Gislason (2013). A novel high pressure column flow reactor for experimental studies of CO2 mineral storage. Applied Geochemistry 30, 91-104.
Gunnarsson I, Aradóttir ES, Sigfússon B, Gunnlaugsson E and Júlíusson BM, (2013), Geothermal Gas Emission From Hellisheidi and Nesjavellir Power Plants, Iceland, GRC Transactions, Vol. 37, 785-789.
Stockmann, G.J., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2013). Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 2: Diopside. Chemical Geology 337–338, 55-66.
Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L., Björnsson G. and Jónsson H. (2012) Multidimensional reactive transport modeling of CO2 mineral sequestration in basalts at the Hellisheidi geothermal field, Iceland Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control9, 24-40.
Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L. and Jónsson H. I. (2012) Development and evaluation of a thermodynamic dataset for phases of interest in CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Chem. Geol. 304–305, 26–38.
Aradóttir E.S.P et al. (2012) Towards cleaner geothermal energy utilization: capturing and sequestering CO2 and H2S emissions from geothermal power plants. PROCEEDINGS, TOUGH Symposium 2012, Lawrence Berekeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, September 17-19.
Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). CO2-water-basalt interaction. Low temperature experiments and implications for CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 81, 129-152.
Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Mineralogical aspects of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration - An experimental study at 75 to 250 °C and elevated pCO2. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 146–159.
Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Experiments and geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 10–28.
Helgi A. Alfredsson, D. W. Boenisch and A. Stefánsson. (2011). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks in Iceland: Development of a piston-type downhole sampler for CO2 rich fluids and tracers. Energy Procedia 4, 3510–3517.
Stockmann G.J., Liudmila S. Shirokova, Oleg S. Pokrovsky et al. (2012). Does the presence of heterotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas reactants affect basaltic glass dissolution rates? Chemical Geology 296-297, 1–18.
Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigurðardóttir, H. Sigfússon, B. and Gunnlaugsson, E. (2011). CarbFix: A CCS pilot project imitating and accelerating natural CO2 sequestratioon. Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1: 105-118.
Stefánsson, A, Arnórsson, S, Gunnarsson, I. et al. (2011). The geochemistry and sequestration of H2S into the geothermal system at Hellisheidi, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 202, 179-188.
Flaathen T. K., Oelkers E. H., Gislason S. R. and Aagaard P. (2011) The effect of dissolved sulphate on calcite precipitation kinetics and consequences for subsurface CO2 storage. Energy Procedia 4, 5037–5043.
Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2011. CO2–water–basalt interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4728–4751.
Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2011) An experimental study of crystalline basalt dissolution from 2 6 pH 6 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 5496–5509.
Matter JM, Broecker, W., Gislason, S. R. et al. (2011). The CarbFix Pilot Project – Storing Carbon Dioxide in Basalt. Energy Procedia 4, 5579–5585.
Ragnheiðardóttir E, Sigurðardóttir H, Kristjánsdóttir H and Harveyd W. (2011). Opportunities and challenges for CarbFix: An evaluation of capacities and costs for the pilot scale mineralization sequestration project at Hellisheidi, Iceland and beyond. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 5: 1065–1072.
Stockmann G.J., D. Wolff-Boenisch, S.R. Gislason, E.H. Oelkers. (2011) Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 1: Basaltic glass, Chemical Geology, 284 306-316.
Wolff-Boenisch, D., Wenau, S., Gislason, S, and Oelkers, E. H. (2011). Dissolution of basalts and peridotite in the presence of organic and inorganic ligands, in seawater and under pCO2 pressure at 25°C. Implications for mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochima Acta 75, 5510-5525.
Wolff-Boenisch, D:. (2011). On the buffer capacity of CO2-charged seawater used for carbonation and subsequent mineral sequestration. Energy Procedia, 4, 3738–3745.
Gislason, S.R., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Stefansson, A. et al. (2010). Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in basalt: A pre-injection overview of the CarbFix project. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, 537-545.
Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2010). The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rates. Chem. Geol. 277, 345–354.
Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R. and Oelkers E.H. (2009). Chemical evolution of the Mt. Hekla, Iceland, groundwaters: A natural analogue for CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Applied Geochemistry, 24, 463-474.
Matter, J.M., Broecker, W.S., Stute, M. et al. (2009). Permanent Carbon Dioxide Storage into Basalt: The CarbFix Pilot Project, Iceland. Energy Procedia, 1, 3641-3646.
Alfredsson, H.A., Hardarson, B.S., Franzson, H., Gislason, S.R. (2008). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rock at the Hellisheidi site in SW Iceland:Stratigraphy and chemical composition of the rocks at the injection site. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 1-5.
Flaathen, T.K., Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R. (2008).The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rate. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 39-41.
Gudbrandsson, S., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H.(2008). Dissolution rates of crystalline basalt at pH 4 and 10 and 25-75°C. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 155-158.
Gysi, A.P. and Stefánsson, A. (2008). Numerical modelling of CO2-water-basalt interaction. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 55-59.
Oelkers E.H., S.R. Gislason, and J. Matter (2008). Mineral Carbonation of CO2, Elements, Vol. 4, 331-335.
Rezvani Khalilabad, M., Axelsson, G. and Gislason, S.R. (2008). Aquifer characterization with tracer test technique; permanent CO2 sequestration into basalt, SW Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 121 125.
Stockmann, G., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H. (2008). Dissolution of diopside and basaltic glass: the effect of carbonate coating. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 135-139.
Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó. (2017). Mineral storage of carbon in basaltic rocks. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Alfredsson, H.A. (2015). Water-rock interaction during mineral carbonation and volcanic ash weathering. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Galeczka I. (2013). Experimental and field studies of basalt-carbon dioxide interaction. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Gudbrandsson, S. (2013). Experimental weathering rates of alunimum-silicates. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Stockmann, G.J. (2012). Experimental study of Basalt carbonatization. Ph.D. thesis, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Aradottir, E.S.P. (2011). Reactive transport models of CO2-water-basalt interaction and applications to CO2 mineral sequestration. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Gysi, A.P. (2011). CO2-water-basalt Interaction: Reaction Path Experiments and Numerical Modeling. University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Flaathen, T.K. (2009). Water-rock interaction during CO2 sequestration in basalt. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Aaberg, I. (2013) Characterization of olivine reacted with supercritical CO2 using surface sensitive techniques - Implications for mineral carbonation. University of Copenhagen. 75 p.
Rezvani Khalilabad, M. 2008. Characterization of the Hellisheidi-Threngsli CO2 sequestration Target Aquifier by Tracer Testing. Oddi, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2008. ISBN: 978-9979-68-252-3. ISSN: 1670-7427
Ragnheidardottir, E.V. 2010. Costs, Profitability and Potential Gains of the CarbFix Program. pp 107.
Madsen, E.K. (2014) Limestone interaction with supercritical CO2: Investigating the implications on limestone morphology and composition. University of Copenhagen. 35 p.
Petersen, M. L. (2014) Underground storage of carbon dioxide: Investigating the release of trace elements from limestone. University of Copenhagen. 42 p.
Kragsberger, R.T. (2014) Reactivity of calcite in contact with water and supercritical CO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.
Weihe, S.H.C. (2014) Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Investigating mineral dissolution and the release of trace elements from limestone upon interaction with scCO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.
As a part of the FP7 funded CarbFix project (no. 283148), the CarbFix team has created improved computer accessible databases describing the thermodynamics and kinetics of fluid-rock interaction during carbon-capture and storage efforts. The databases are open source and can be downloaded below.
A thermodynamic dataset describing 36 mineral reactions of interest for CO2–water–basalt interaction associated with CO2 mineral sequestration was assessed and generated. Mineral selection for the dataset was based on extensive review of natural analogs of water–basalt interaction at low and elevated CO2 conditions. Widely used thermodynamic databases did not contain the mineral assemblage needed for successfully simulating the alteration processes observed in nature as important primary and secondary minerals were found to be missing.
The EQ3/6 V7.2b thermodynamic database was the primary source for aqueous equilibrium constants in the developed dataset but reactions for four missing Al-hydroxy complexes were added. Recently published thermodynamic data were compiled for most of the minerals considered in this study. Mineral solubility constants obtained directly from measurements were compiled to the dataset without modification but SUPCRT92 was used for computing solubility constants when such data was not available. To verify that the presented dataset can capture alterations observed in nature, simulations of CO2–water–basalt interaction were carried out at low and elevated CO2 conditions and compared to observed basalt alteration in Iceland and Greenland. Overall simulated and observed alteration are in close agreement, both at low and elevated CO2 conditions, suggesting the dataset to be well suited for simulations of e.g. CO2–water–basalt interaction associated with CO2 mineral sequestration in basalts.
Click the link below to access the EQ3/6 thermodynamic database.
The carbfix.dat thermodynamic database for the PHREEQC geochemical modelling software is built upon the core10.dat database, which is in turn based on the llnl.dat database shipped with PHREEQC. Current features of the carbfix.dat include:
- All the data of core10.dat - thermodynamic data for a vast number of minerals and aqueous species
- 18 zeolite group miners
- Re-calibrated solubilities of siderite and dolomite
- New data for stabilities of aqueous metal-carbonate complexes
- Data for stabilities of aqueous iron-hydroxide complexes
- Additional data for stabilities of various other aqueous species
- Some bugfixes
For a detailed description of carbfix.dat, and for citing the source when using it in your own work, please refer to:
Voigt, M., Marieni, C., Clark, D. E., Gíslason, S. R., and Oelkers, E. H. (2018) "Evaluation and refinement of thermodynamic databases for mineral carbonation" Energy Procedia 146, 81-91, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.012
Click the link below to access the PHREEQC thermodynamic database.
A general database of the current state of knowledge of the rates of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions has been created by the CarbFix team over the past three years. The database currently contains more than 110 rock forming minerals, and has been put into general form such that it can be readily applied by the scientific community to assess the potential of fluid-rock interactions during carbon capture and storage efforts.
This database was created by first collecting and correlating the existing kinetic rate data available in the scientific literature. In cases where adequate fits of these data were already available in the literature, such fits were adopted in this study. In other cases we have sought to provide a quantitative description of these data consistent with what is known about the dissolution and/or precipitation mechanism of the minerals. The resulting and adopted equations have been incorporated into a PHREEQC enabled computer script to all it to be applied directly in conjunction with this geochemical modelling code. Note that PHREEQC is widely available geochemical computer modelling code, originally created at the US Geological Survey and available free to any potential user via the web,
Click the document below to access the kinetic database.
The CarbFix field injection is located at Hellisheidi geothermal Power Plant in SW-Iceland. The power plant co-produces electricity and hot water from the Hengill central volcano and installed capacity of 300 MW electricity and 120 MW thermal. Without gas capture and injection, the power plant would emit about 40,000 tons CO2 and 12,000 tons H2S. The CO2 emissions amount to about 5% of what a coal fired power plant of the same size would emit. Currently about 25% of CO2 and 75% of H2S of the plant's production is being captured and injected into nearby basaltic formations, resulting in rapid and permanent disposal of the gases as carbonate and sulfide minerals.
Here you can access two high resolution photos. One showing Hellisheidi power plant, the other showing precipitated carbonates in a core drilled at the CarbFix injection site.
Logo designed by Marijo Murillo Graphic Designer (email@example.com)
The founding partners of CarbFix:
- The Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland
- The Earth Institute of the Columbia University
- Reykjavik Energy (Orkuveita Reykjavíkur, OR)
The CarbFix partners (FP7):
- The Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland
- Nano science center, Copenhagen University
- Reykjavik Energy (Orkuveita Reykjavíkur, OR)
The CarbFix2 partners:
- The Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland
- Reykjavik Energy (Orkuveita Reykjavíkur, OR)
Other universities, organisations and research institutes contributing to CarbFix:
- Institut de Physique Du Globe, Paris
- University of Southampton
- University College London
- Iceland GeoSurvey, ISOR
- Mannvit Engineering
- Durham University
- University of Oxford
- University of Leeds