The CarbFix Project

CarbFix is a collaborative research project led by Reykjavik Energy, that aims at developing safe, simple and economical methods and technology for permanent CO2 mineral storage in basalts.

CarbFix News

The CarbFix Project

The CarbFix team had demonstrated that over 95% of CO2 captured and injected at Hellisheidi geothermal Power Plant in Iceland was mineralized within two years. This contrasts the previous common view that mineralization in CCS projects takes hundreds to thousands of years. Industrial scale capture and injection have been ongoing at the power plant since 2012.

GAS INTO ROCK FULL SUB from Orkuveita Reykjavikur on Vimeo.


The CarbFix2 project

The CarbFix2 project was started on the 1st of August 2017, with the goal to move the demonstrated CarbFix technology from the demonstration phase to a general and economically viable complete CCS chain that can be used through Europe and throughout the world. It is funded by the European Union through H2020.


The CarbFix2 project consists of seven distinct work packages (WP):

  • WP1       Project Management

  • WP2       Air Capture using waste heat

  • WP3       On shore injection

  • WP4       Off Shore injection

  • WP5       Economic/feasibility analysis of the entire CCS cycle

  • WP6       Dissemination and public engagement

  • WP7       Ethics

The CarbFix Team

CarbFix was founded by four partners in 2007: The University of Iceland, CNRS in Toulouse, the Earth Institute at Columbia University in New York and Reykjavik Energy. Since then, partners from over 20 institutes and universities, with over 100 people have contributed to the project, thereof a number of PhD and MS students as well as engineers and technicians.

Current activities within the CarbFix project are carried out by partners of the EU-funded project CarbFix2, which aims on moving the demonstrated CarbFix technology from the demonstration phase to a general and economically viable complete CCS chain that can be used through Europe and throughout the world. 

The partners


The team

  • Reykjavík Energy:

    • Edda Sif Aradóttir - project manager, leader of WP1, WP6 and WP7

    • Bergur Sigfússon - innovation manager, deputy project manager

    • Sandra Ósk Snæbjörnsdóttir


  • CNRS

    • Eric H. Oelkers - leader of WP4 and WP6

    • Chiara Marieni - postdoctoral researcher


  • University of Iceland

    • Sigurður Reynir Gíslason - leader of WP3

    • Martin Voigt - postdoctoral researcher

    • Deirdre Clark - PhD student


  • Amphos 21

    • Fidel Grandia - leader of WP3

    • Alvaro Sainz-Garcia

  • Climeworks

    • Dominique Kronenberg - leader of WP2

    • Benjamin Keusch


The external advisory board

  • Dr. Adrian P. Jones, RL Hayman Reader of Petrology, UCL, a founding member of the Deep Carbon Observatory

  • Dr. Juerg Matter, University of Southampton and coordinator of the Oman deep drilling project

  • Dr. Alexander Pisch, CNRS Research Associate  and former R&D program manager at LafargeHolcim

  • Dr. Andrew Putnis, Director, TIGeR and Curtin University

  • Professor Dave Goldberg, LDEO

  • Dr. Helen Williams, University of Cambridge

  • Prof. Dr. Liane G. Benning, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences

  • Prof. Ralf R. Haese, Chair of Geological Carbon Storage & Deputy Director, University of Melbourne

Scientific papers


Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Oelkers, EH, Mesfin, K. et al. (2017) The chemistry and saturation states of subsurface fluids during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 58, pp 87-102.


Matter, JM, Stute, M, Snæbjörnsdottir, SO. et al. (2016) Rapid carbon mineralization for permanent disposal of anthropogeni carbon dioxide emissions. Science, Volume 352, Issue 6291, pp 1312-1314.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Gislason SR. (2017) CO2 Storage Potential of Basaltic Rocks Offshore Iceland. Energy Procedia, Volume 86, pp 371-380.


Sigfusson, B., Gislason, S.R. Matter, J.M. et al. (2015). Solving the carbon-dioxide buoyancy challenge: The design and field testing of a dissolved CO2 injection system. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 37 213–219.

Aradóttir, E.S.P., Gunnarsson, I., Sigfusson, B. et al. (2015). Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy: Subsurface Sequestration of Sour Gas Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.

Aradóttir ESP et al. (2015) Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy Utilization: Capturing and Sequestering CO2 and H2S Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants, Transport in Porous MediaVolume 108, Issue 1, pp 61-84

Juliusson B.M., Gunnarsson, I. Matthiasdottir, K.V. et al. (2015) Tackling the Challenge of H2S Emissions. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.


Gislason SR and Oelkers EH. (2014).  Carbon Storage in Basalt. Science 344, 373-374.

Snæbjörnsdóttir SÓ, Wiese F, Fridriksson Th, Ármansson H., Einarsson GM, Gislason SR. (2014). CO2 storage potential of basaltic rocks in Iceland and the oceanic ridges.  Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4585-4600.

Matter, J.M., Stute, M., Hall, J. et al. (2014). Monitoring permanent CO2 storage by in situ mineral carbonation using a reactive tracer technique. Energy Procedia 63, 4180-4185 .

Gislason S.R et al. (2014). Rapid solubility and mineral storage of CO2 in basalt Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4561–4574.

Galeczka I. M., D. Wolff-Boenisch, E. H. Oelkers, S. R. Gislason (2014). An experimental study of basaltic glass–H2O-CO2 interaction at 22 and 50° C: Implications for subsurface storage of CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 126, 123-145.

Galeczka I. M., , E.H. Oelkers, S.R. Gislason (2014).  The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 273, 41–57.

Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2014). Experimental determination of plagioclase dissolution rates as a function of its composition and pH at 22°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139 (2014) 154–172

Olsson J, Stipp SLS, Makovicky E, and Gislason SR. (2014) .  Metal scavenging by calcium carbonate at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano: A carbon capture and storage analogue.  Chemical Geology 384 135–148.

Schultz L.N., Dideriksen K., Lakshtanov L., Hakim S.S., Müter D., Haußer F., Bechgaard K. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) From nanometer aggregates to micrometer crystals: Insight into the coarsening mechanism of calcite. Cryst. Growth Dec. 14, 552–558.

Stockmann GJ, Wolff-Boenisch D, Bovet N et al. (2014). The role of silicate surfaces on calcite precipitation kinetics. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 135 231-250.

Tobler D.J., Rodriguez Blanco J.D., Dideriksen K., Sand K.K., Bovet N., Benning L.G. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) The effect of aspartic acid and glycine on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability and crystallization. Geochemistry of the Earth’s Surface meeting, GES-10. Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 10, 143 – 148.


Alfredsson H. A., Oelkers E. H., Hadrarson B. S., Franzson H., Gunlaugsson E. and Gislason S. R. (2013) The geology and water chemistry of the Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland carbon storage site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 12, 399–418.

Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigfússon B, Sonnenthal EL, Björnsson G and Jónsson H. (2013). Dynamics of basaltic glass dissolution – Capturing microscopic effects in continuum scale models. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 121 311–327.

Alfredsson, H.A.,  Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R., (2013). The predicted fate of CO2 injected into basaltic rock. New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2012 Proceedings 19 - 21 November 2012 Auckland, New Zealand, 5 pp.

Declercq J, Diedrich T, Perrot M, Gislason SR, Oelkers EH (2013). Experimental determination of rhyolitic glass dissolution rates at 40–200 C and 2 < pH < 10.1. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 100.

Declercq J, Bosc O, Oelkers EH (2013). Do organic ligands affect forsterite dissolution rates? Applied Geochemistry 39 69-77.

Galeczka I., Wolff-Boenisch D. and Gislason S. R. (2013) Experimental studies of basalt–H2O–CO2 interaction with a high pressure column flow reactor: the mobility of metals. Energy Procedia 37, 5823–5833.

Galeczka IM, D Wolff-Boenisch, T Jonsson, B Sigfusson, A Stefansson, SR Gislason (2013).  A novel high pressure column flow reactor for experimental studies of CO2 mineral storage. Applied Geochemistry 30, 91-104.

Gunnarsson I, Aradóttir ES, Sigfússon B, Gunnlaugsson E and Júlíusson BM, (2013), Geothermal Gas Emission From Hellisheidi and Nesjavellir Power Plants, Iceland, GRC Transactions, Vol. 37, 785-789.

Stockmann, G.J., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2013). Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 2: Diopside. Chemical Geology 337–338, 55-66. 


Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L., Björnsson G. and Jónsson H. (2012) Multidimensional reactive transport modeling of CO2 mineral sequestration in basalts at the Hellisheidi geothermal field, Iceland. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control9, 24-40.

Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L. and Jónsson H. I. (2012) Development and evaluation of a thermodynamic dataset for phases of interest in CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Chem. Geol. 304–305, 26–38.

Aradóttir E.S.P et al. (2012) Towards cleaner geothermal energy  utilization: capturing and sequestering CO2 and H2S emissions from geothermal power plants. PROCEEDINGS, TOUGH Symposium 2012, Lawrence Berekeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, September 17-19.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). CO2-water-basalt interaction. Low temperature experiments and implications for CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 81, 129-152.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Mineralogical aspects of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration - An experimental study at 75 to 250 °C and elevated pCO2. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 146–159.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Experiments and geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 10–28.Helgi A. Alfredsson, D. W. Boenisch and A. Stefánsson. (2011). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks in Iceland: Development of a piston-type downhole sampler for CO2 rich fluids and tracers. Energy Procedia 4, 3510–3517.

Stockmann G.J., Liudmila S. Shirokova, Oleg S. Pokrovsky et al. (2012).  Does the presence of heterotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas reactants affect basaltic glass dissolution rates?  Chemical Geology 296-297, 1–18.


Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigurðardóttir, H. Sigfússon, B. and Gunnlaugsson, E. (2011). CarbFix: A CCS pilot project imitating and accelerating natural CO2 sequestratioon. Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1: 105-118. 

Stefánsson, A, Arnórsson, S, Gunnarsson, I. et al. (2011). The geochemistry and sequestration of H2S into the geothermal system at Hellisheidi, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 202, 179-188.

Flaathen T. K., Oelkers E. H., Gislason S. R. and Aagaard P. (2011) The effect of dissolved sulphate on calcite precipitation kinetics and consequences for subsurface CO2 storage. Energy Procedia 4, 5037–5043.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2011. CO2–water–basalt interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4728–4751.

Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2011) An experimental study of crystalline basalt dissolution from 2 6 pH 6 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 5496–5509.

Matter JM, Broecker, W., Gislason, S. R. et al. (2011). The CarbFix Pilot Project – Storing Carbon Dioxide in Basalt. Energy Procedia 4, 5579–5585.

Ragnheiðardóttir E, Sigurðardóttir H, Kristjánsdóttir H and Harveyd  W. (2011). Opportunities and challenges for CarbFix: An evaluation of capacities and costs for the pilot scale mineralization sequestration project at Hellisheidi, Iceland and beyond. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 5: 1065–1072.

Stockmann G.J., D. Wolff-Boenisch, S.R. Gislason, E.H. Oelkers. (2011) Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 1: Basaltic glass, Chemical Geology, 284 306-316.

Wolff-Boenisch, D., Wenau, S., Gislason, S, and Oelkers, E. H. (2011). Dissolution of basalts and peridotite in the presence of organic and inorganic ligands, in seawater and under pCO2 pressure at 25°C. Implications for mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochima Acta 75, 5510-5525.

Wolff-Boenisch, D:. (2011). On the buffer capacity of CO2-charged seawater used for carbonation and subsequent mineral sequestration. Energy Procedia, 4, 3738–3745.


Gislason, S.R., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Stefansson, A. et al. (2010). Mineral sequestration of carbon. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, 537-545.

Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2010). The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rates. Chem. Geol. 277, 345–354.


Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R. and Oelkers E.H. (2009). Chemical evolution of the Mt. Hekla, Iceland, groundwaters: A natural analogue for CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Applied Geochemistry, 24, 463-474.

Matter, J.M., Broecker, W.S., Stute, M. et al. (2009). Permanent Carbon Dioxide Storage into Basalt: The CarbFix Pilot Project, Iceland. Energy Procedia, 1, 3641-3646.


Alfredsson, H.A., Hardarson, B.S., Franzson, H., Gislason, S.R. (2008). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rock at the Hellisheidi site in SW Iceland:Stratigraphy and chemical composition of the rocks at the injection site. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 1-5.

Flaathen, T.K., Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R. (2008).false. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 39-41. 

Gudbrandsson, S., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H.(2008). Dissolution rates of crystalline basalt at pH 4 and 10 and 25-75°C. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 155-158. 

Gysi, A.P. and Stefánsson, A. (2008). Numerical modelling of CO2-water-basalt interaction. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 55-59.

Oelkers E.H., S.R. Gislason, and J. Matter (2008). Mineral Carbonation of CO2, Elements, Vol. 4, 331-335.

Rezvani Khalilabad, M., Axelsson, G. and  Gislason, S.R. (2008). Aquifer characterization with tracer test technique; permanent CO2 sequestration into basalt, SW Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 121 125. 

Stockmann, G., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H. (2008). Dissolution of diopside and basaltic glass: the effect of carbonate coating. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 135-139.

PhD Thesis

Alfredsson, H.A. (2015). Water-rock interaction during mineral carbonation and volcanic ash weathering. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Aradottir, E.S.P. (2011). Reactive transport models of CO2-water-basalt interaction and applications to CO2 mineral sequestration. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Flaathen, T.K. (2009). Water-rock interaction during CO2 sequestration in basalt. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Galeczka I. (2013). Experimental and field studies of basalt-carbon dioxide interaction. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. 

Gudbrandsson, S. (2013). Experimental weathering rates of alunimum-silicates. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. 

Gysi, A.P. (2011). CO2-water-basalt Interaction: Reaction Path Experiments and Numerical Modeling. University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó. (2017). Mineral storage of carbon in basaltic rocks. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Stockmann, G.J. (2012). Experimental study of Basalt carbonatization. Ph.D. thesis, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

MSc Thesis

Aaberg, I. (2013) Characterization of olivine reacted with supercritical CO2 using surface sensitive techniques - Implications for mineral carbonation. University of Copenhagen. 75 p.

Rezvani Khalilabad, M. 2008. Characterization of the Hellisheidi-Threngsli CO2 sequestration Target Aquifier by Tracer Testing. Oddi, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2008. ISBN: 978-9979-68-252-3. ISSN: 1670-7427

Ragnheidardottir, E.V. 2010. Costs, Profitability and Potential Gains of the CarbFix Program. pp 107.

BSc Thesis

Madsen, E.K. (2014) Limestone interaction with supercritical CO2: Investigating the implications on limestone morphology and composition. University of Copenhagen. 35 p.

Petersen, M. L. (2014) Underground storage of carbon dioxide: Investigating the release of trace elements from limestone. University of Copenhagen. 42 p.

Kragsberger, R.T. (2014) Reactivity of calcite in contact with water and supercritical CO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.

Weihe, S.H.C. (2014) Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Investigating mineral dissolution and the release of trace elements from limestone upon interaction with scCO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.