The CarbFix2 Project


The main goal of the CarbFix2 project is to move the demonstrated CarbFix technology from the demonstration phase to a general and economically viable complete CCS chain that can be used through Europe and throughout the world. It is funded by the European Union through H2020 (Project ID 764760).

Five partners are involved with the CarbFix2 project; The University of Iceland, CNRS in Toulouse, France, Amphos 21 in Barcelona, Spain, Climeworks in Zürich, Switzerland, and the project leader Reykjavik Energy, Iceland.


The Objectives


Since year 2007, scientists have collaborated with Reykjavík Energy’s experts, technicians, and tradespeople on developing the idea and implementation of fixating CO2 into basaltic rock around The Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Plant. The power station co-generates electricity and hot water from geothermal steam which contains sporadic amounts geothermal gases. The same method as has been developed with CO2 is now also employed to sequester H2S, another geothermal gas. Already, 60% of the gases are now fixed as minerals in the bedrock and ON Power, Reykjavík Energy’s subsidiary that operates the power plant, aims at making the operation traceless in terms of these gases.

The CarbFix2 project builds on the success of the CarbFix project. The CarbFix2 goal is to move the demonstrated CarbFix technology from the demonstration phase, to a general and economically viable complete CCS chain that can be used through Europe, and throughout the world. 

Towards this goal CarbFix2 will extend the original CarbFix approach from the demonstration stage in one location to implementation under more diverse conditions, with special emphasis on the sea-bed. Because the methods employed to fix CO2 in the bedrock crave both water and basaltic rock, scientists now have focused on the ocean floor. There, extensive field of basalt can be found and, naturally, lots of water. To significantly lower the cost of CCS, major effort in CarbFix2 is focused on optimising the capture and storage of impure CO2, using a novel water based technique, providing an added value to CCS. By meeting these goals, the CarbFix2 project can increase the safety, and geographical and economical applicability of CCS.


The Partners


Current activities within the CarbFix project are carried out by partners of the EU-funded project CarbFix2, which aims on moving the demonstrated CarbFix technology from the demonstration phase to a general and economically viable complete CCS chain that can be used through Europe and throughout the world. 


Reykjavik Energy, Iceland - the project co-ordinator

Reykjavík Energy (Orkuveita Reykjavíkur, OR) is a public utility company providing electricity, geothermal water for heating, and cold water for consumption and firefighting. OR‘s principal owner is the City of Reykjavík, and it provides its services through three subsidiaries; Veitur Utilities, ON Power, and Reykjavík Fibre Network, The group harnesses hot water from geothermal fields in Reykjavík and operates geothermal plants at Hellisheidi and Nesjavellir where electricity and hot water is generated.

OR has since 2007 been involved in development, testing and demonstration of a full CCS cycle at one of its power plants, through the CarbFix project, which has since then been extended to industrial scale.



CNRS, France

The CNRS is a government‐funded research organization, under the administrative authority of France's Ministry of Research. It involves 26,000 permanent employees  and 6,000 temporary workers, making it the largest fundamental science agency in Europe..

Research in the CarbFix2 project will be performed by the Experimental Geochemistry group of the GET laboratory (CNRS UMR 5563) located in Toulouse. The laboratory is equipped with the state‐of‐the‐art equipment for measuring and interpreting rate experiments and is renowned for its high quality experimental and theoretical studies on mineral‐fluid interactions, and its high scientific productivity. CNRS is one of the founding members of the CarbFix project.


University of Iceland

The University of Iceland is the largest teaching and research institute in Iceland with about 12,500 students thereof 3,500 graduate students. The Institute of Earth Sciences is an academic research institute hosted within the Science Institute, University of Iceland and comprises 28 faculty members, 6 technicians, 16 research scientists and about 60 PhD and master’s students.

Research within the CarbFix2 project will be performed by the Aquatic Geochemistry Group of IES which is currently working on CO2 and H2S capture from geothermal power plants and its storage in basaltic rocks, thermodynamic and kinetic laboratory experimental studies of mineral‐fluid‐gas interactions and natural analogue studies for carbon storage in basaltic rocks. The Aquatic Geochemistry laboratory is equipped with the state‐of‐the‐art equipment for measuring and interpreting laboratory rate experiments, and natural fluid chemistry. The University of Iceland is one of the founding members of the CarbFix project.


AMPHOS21, Spain

AMPHOS21 Consulting S.L. (A21) provides scientific and technical consultancy services addressing a range of environmental issues, mainly associated with the management and disposal of hazardous wastes, contaminated groundwater and soils as well as environmental planning and management. The main output is the expert advice to national geological agencies and regulators, along with industrial innovation. AMPHOS 21 counts on a team of more than 40 highly qualified professional specialized in scientific and technical disciplines related to geosciences, climate change and waste and energy geological storage.

AMPHOS21 is leader in innovative solutions of modelling of underground storage processes, both physical and geochemical. AMPHOS21 was also involved in the CarbFix project, seed of the actual CarbFix2 project.


Climeworks, Switzerland

Climeworks AG (CW) was founded in 2009 as ­a Spin‐off Company from ETH Zurich and is registered as a public limited company (AG) in Zurich, Switzerland. CW provides solutions for efficiently capturing CO2 out of ambient air (“direct air capture”, DAC). Onsite DAC plants from CW offer a competitive and environmentally friendly CO2 supply to its customers. The two main advantages of CW products are the location independency, a DAC plant does not need any point source of CO2 emissions like flue gas streams since atmospheric air is available nearly everywhere, and the energy supply, which can largely be covered by low‐temperature heat that is often available as waste heat.

The Team


Reykjavik Energy

Edda Sif Aradóttir, PhD, chemist and reservoir Engineer at Reykjavík Energy. Project manager of CarbFix, and leader of WP1, WP6 and WP7.

Bergur Sigfússon, PhD, geochemist at Reykjavik Energy. Deputy project manager, and innovation manager of CarbFix2. Active partner in WP1, WP2, WP3, and WP4.

Sandra Ósk Snæbjörnsdóttir, PhD, geologist/geochemist at Reykjavík Energy. Active partner in WP3, WP4, and WP6.

Gunnar Gunnarsson, PhD, geophysicist and reservoir engineer at Reykjavík Energy. Active partner in WP3.

Ingvi Gunnarsson, geochemist at Reykjavík Energy. Active partner in WP3.

Dröfn Harðardóttir treasury and planning manager at Reykjavík Energy. Active partner in WP1 and WP5.

Bryndís María Leifsdóttir, head of accounting at Reykjavík Energy. Active partner in WP1 and WP5.

Eirikur Hjálmarsson, head of communications at Reykjavík Energy. Active partner in WP6.


University of Iceland

Sigurður Reynir Gíslason, PhD, research professor at the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland. One of the founding members of the CarbFix project, and head of the scientific committee. Leader of WP3. Active partner in WP4.

Deirdre Clark, PhD student working under the supervision of Sigurður R. Gíslason at the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland. Research involves laboratory experiments, numerical modelling, and geochemical monitoring of the on-shore injection. Active partner in WP3.

Martin Voigt, Postdoctoral researcher ar the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland. Active partner in WP3, and WP4.



Eric Oelkers, professor at University College London, and research director at CNRS GET-UMR 5563 in Toulouse, France. One of the founding members of the CarbFix project. Leader of WP4 and WP6.

Chiara Marieni, PhD, Postdoctoral researcher at the CNRS GET-UMR 5563 in Toulouse, France. Focussed on CarbFix strategy sustainability and worldwide applicability, particularly through the study of water-rock interactions in presence of seawater, at high pCO2 conditions, and in several rock systems. Active partner in WP3 and WP4.


Amphos 21

Fidel Grandia, PhD, Project Director at Amphos 21 Consulting. Leader of WP3 in CarbFix and active partner in WP4. The main tasks are related to the development of 3D numerical modelling of reaction of injected CO2+H2S in the CarbFix sites.

Alvaro Sainz-Garcia, MSc, Consultant at Amphos 21 Consulting. Solute and heat flow modeller. He will be involved in the implementation of the field site data in WP3 and WP4 and computation of conservative flows of mass and heat. 



Dominique Kronenberg, Climeworks AG, COO. Leader of WP2.

Benjamin Keusch, Climeworks AG, Department Head Order Processing & Service, responsible for construction and operating of a Climeworks direct air capture plant at Hellisheidi, and active partner of WP2.

Valentin Gutknecht, marketing and communication at Climeworks AG. Active partner in WP2, and WP6.

Christoph Gebald, PhD, founder and director at Climeworks AG. Active partner in WP2.

Jan Wurtzbacher, PhD, director and founder at Climeworks AG. Active partner in WP2.



The Work Packages


The CarbFix2 project consists of seven distinct work packages (WP):

WP1       Project Management

- lead by Reykjavík Energy

WP2       Air Capture using waste heat

- lead by Climeworks

WP3       On shore injection

- lead by University of Iceland and Amphos21

WP4       Off Shore injection

- lead by CNRS

WP5       Economic/feasibility analysis of the entire CCS cycle 

- lead by Reykjavík Energy

WP6       Dissemination and public engagement 

- lead by Reykjavík Energy

WP7       Ethics 

- lead by CNRS and Reykjavik Energy

The External Advisory Board


The role of the external advisory board is both to advise CarbFix2, and to disseminate project results to end-users.

The members of the external adcisory board are: 

Dr. Adrian P. Jones, RL Hayman Reader of Petrology, UCL, a founding member of the Deep Carbon Observatory

Dr. Juerg Matter, University of Southampton and coordinator of the Oman deep drilling project

Dr. Alexander Pisch, CNRS Research Associate  and former R&D program manager at LafargeHolcim

Dr. Andrew Putnis, Director, TIGeR and Curtin University

Prof. Dave Goldberg, LDEO

Dr. Helen Williams, University of Cambridge

Prof. Dr. Liane G. Benning, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences

Prof. Ralf R. Haese, Chair of Geological Carbon Storage & Deputy Director, University of Melbourne