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A primary goal of the CarbFix project is to imitate the natural storage process of CO2 already observed in basaltic rocks in Icelandic geothermal fields. The project’s implications for the fight against global warming may be considerable, since basaltic bedrock susceptive of CO2 injections are widely found on the planet.
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Interview with Juerg Matter in NewScientist
NewScientist interviewed Juerg Matter, one of the principal investigators and founders of CarbFix, earlier this year2014-09-24 08:25
Volcanic eruptions provide a natural analog for CO2 sequestration in basalts
The Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland is one of the founding partners of the CarbFix project. Since the unrest at Bárðabunga volcano and the later eruption at Holuhraun, north of Vatnajökull in August, the staff at the institute has been rather busy. When an eruption takes place the whole institute gets involved with various tasks related to petrology, volcanology, geochemistry and geophysics, including field (sampling, mapping, and monitoring), laboratory (chemical analysis on various instruments) and data analysis (including GPS, seismic and satellite images).2014-09-24 08:23
PhD Position in Geologic CO2-H2S storage
Division of Research and Development at Reykjavik Energy and the Geothermal Geochemistry Group at Department of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland are seeking a PhD student to work on an integrated research project to advance our understanding of the subsurface processes associated with geological storage of CO2-H2S gas mixtures.2014-09-24 08:20
CarbFix Project story on Horizon 2020 website
The European Commission has published a story on CarbFix on the Horizon 2020 website.2014-09-15 11:32
Experimental operation of industrial scale gas capture and injection commenced at Hellisheidi geothermal power plant2014-09-09 08:48
Paper on reactive transport simulations published
Edda Aradóttir et al. published a paper presenting field scale reactive transport models of CO2 and H2S mineral sequestration in basalts with focus on sour gas re-injection tests at Hellisheidi that are ongoing within CarbFix.2014-06-06 12:09
CarbFix in Science
Sigurður R. Gíslason and Eric Oelkers, both members of the CarbFix Scientific Steering Committee recently published a Perspective in Science entitled "Carbon Storage in Basalt". The article e.g. discusses exciting results that the CarbFix group is getting from CO2 injections into basalts at the CarbFix injection site in Hellisheidi, Iceland.2014-05-13 13:29
Reducing industrial CO2 emissions is considered one of the main challenges of this century. By capturing CO2 from variable sources and injecting it into suitable deep rock formations, the carbon released is returned back where it was extracted instead of freeing it to the atmosphere. This technology might help to mitigate climate change as injecting CO2 at carefully selected geological sites with large potential storage capacity can be a long lasting and environmentally benign storage solution.
To address this challenge, the CarbFix project is designed to optimize industrial methods for storing CO2 in basaltic rocks through a combined program consisting of, field scale injection of CO2 charged waters into basaltic rocks, laboratory based experiments, study of natural analogues and state of the art geochemical modeling. A second and equally important goal of this research project is to generate the human capital and expertise to apply the advances made in this project in the future.
This research program includes:
- Field scale injection of CO2 charged waters into basaltic rocks at the Hellisheidi natural laboratory. The Hellisheidi natural laboratory, situated in the Hengill area, SW Iceland, comprises ideal conditions for studying the feasibility of permanent CO2 storage as minerals in basaltic rocks due to availability of CO2 and water, the presence of fresh basalts, suitable geological structures, and an extensive infrastructure.
- Laboratory experiments research program. The emphasis of this experimental program is to quantify basalt dissolution and carbonate precipitation rates stemming from during CO2 injection.
- Studies of natural CO2–rich water reactivity as natural analogues to the behavior of injected CO2. A significant number of natural sites have experienced basalt interaction with CO2 charges waters. Studies of these systems provide insight into the long-term stability of basalt hosted CO2 storage.
- Geochemical modeling. Geochemical modeling will be performed to interpret laboratory experiments and field work as well as to predict/optimize the long-term behavior of CO2 injection sites.
Details and results of this research program, including regular updates, can be found on this website.
Four partners have been involved with the project from its inception in 2007:
Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (Reykjavik Energy) is a public utility that provides electricity, geothermal water for heating, and cold water for consumption and fire fighting, with services extending to 20 communities, covering 67% of the Icelandic population.
University of Iceland
The University of Iceland is a progressive educational and scientific institution, renowned in the global scientific community for its research. It is a state university, situated in the heart of Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland.
Earth Institute - Columbia University
With 850 scientists, postdoctoral fellows and students working in and across more than 20 Columbia University research centers, The Earth Institute is helping to advance nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, hazards and urbanization.
The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (National Center for Scientific Research) is a government-funded research organization, under the administrative authority of France's Ministry of Research.
Two new partners were added after the project recieved a substantial grant from the European Union in 2011:
NanoGeoScience – University of Copenhagen
The University of Copenhagen is the largest Nordic university and is well respected internationally. NanoGeoScience, a part of the Nano-Science Centre, is an international team of approximately 50 physicists, chemists, geologists, mineralogists, biologists, mathematicians and engineers.
AMPHOS 21 Consulting S.L. is a SME that provides scientific and technical consultancy services addressing a range of environmental issues, mainly associated with the management and disposal of hazardous wastes, contaminated groundwater and soils as well as environmental planning and management.
The MT and the SSC collaborate towards the goal and objectives of the project. The MT’s focus is primarily on funding, administrative and managerial. The MT shall ensure that a project plan is prepared and maintained on an on-going basis with at least annual reviews and updates by Project Manager and SSC. This project plan shall show appropriate operational details on the Project and shall include, but not be limited to, items such as: budgets, forecasts, capital expenditures, etc. The project plan shall serve the purpose of giving detailed information on the operation of the Project. The Management Team has to approve all changes of Participant’s partial interest in the Project. The MT is responsible for acquiring all relevant expertise needed beyond the capabilities of the members and is responsible for developing and maintaining a web page for the project.
The MT shall consist of 3 (three) members. Orkuveita Reykjavikur appoints 1 (one), the Chairman of the Management Team, and the SSC elects 2 (two) individuals to be on the MT for a period of 2 (two) years at a time. Upon request of any Participant, the 2 representatives elected by SSC on the Management Team will rotate among the Participants, each for a two-year period.
- Hólmfríður Sigurðardóttir (Chairman) - Head of Environmental Affairs - Reykjavik Energy, Iceland - holmfridur.sigurdardottir (at) or.is
- Juerg M. Matter - Doherty Associate Research Scientist - Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, USA - jmatter (at) ldeo.columbia.edu
- Andri Stefánsson - Associated Professor at the Institute of Earth Sciences - University of Iceland - as (at) hi.is
The PM is appointed by the Management Team and shall be a permanent fourth member on the Management Team, but with no voting rights.
- Edda Sif Aradóttir - Project Manager - Reykjavik Energy - edda.sif.aradottir (at) or.is
Scientific Steering Committee
The SSC shall mutually work towards the Goal and Objectives for the Project. The SSC is responsible for (i) overall coordination and fostering collaboration among the individual research projects being performed by the Participants; (ii) monitoring the overall progress of the Project and addressing issues as they arise; (iii) selecting research projects that will be funded through the “General Funds” and (iv) electing 2 members of the Management Team. SSC members are responsible for acquiring all relevant expertise needed beyond the capabilities of the members on the committee.
The SSC shall consist of 4 (four) members and a personal substitute member for each member. The Participants shall have a right to appoint 1 (one) member on the SSC each, and a personal substitute, both for a period of 2 (two) years at a time. The representative appointed by University of Iceland on the SSC is automatically the Chairman of the SSC.
- Sigurður Reynir Gíslason (Chairman) - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - Research Professor - sigrg (at) raunvis.hi.is
- Wallace S. Broecker - Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory - broecker (at) ldeo.columbia.edu
- Eric H. Oelkers - Research Director - Chemistry and Earth Science - CNRS UMR 5563 / Universtié Paul Sabatier, France - oelkers (at) lmt.obs-mip.fr
- Einar Gunnlaugsson - Manager of Geothermal Research - Reykjavik Energy, Iceland - einar.gunnlaugsson (at) or.is
- Ásdís Gíslason - Reykjavík Energy - asdis.gislason (at) or.is
- Bergur Sigfússon - Specialist, Research and development - Reykjavik Energy - bergur.sigfusson (at) or.is
- Einar Örn Þrastarson - Reykjavik Energy - einar.orn.thrastarson (at) or.is
- Eiríkur Hjálmarsson - Reykjavík Energy -eirikur.hjalmarsson (at) or.is
- Fidel Grandia - Amphos 21 - fidel.grandia (at) amphos21.com
- Guðni Axelsson - Head of Physics Department - Íslenskar orkurannsóknir - ga (at) isor.is
- Ingvi Gunnarsson - Geochemist, New Power Projects, Research - Reykjavik Energy -ingvi.gunnarsson (at) or.is
- Jordi Bruno - Amphos21
- Knud Dideriksen - NanoGeoScience - University of Copenhagen -knud (at) nano.ku.dk
- Kristjana Eyjólfsdóttir - Reykjavík Energy - kristjana.eyjolfsdottir (at) or.is
- Magnús Þór Arnarson - Chemical Engineer, M.Sc. - Hydropower and Industry - Mannvit Engineering - magnusa (at) mannvit.is
- Martin Stute - Ann Whitney Olin Professor of Environmental Science - Co-chair, Department of Environmental Science - Barnard College, Columbia University - Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University - martin (at) ldeo.columbia.edu
- Susan Stipp - NanoGeoScience - University of Copenhagen - stipp (at) nano.ku.dk
- Liana Benning - University of Leeds
- Bénedicte Ménez - IPGP
The following Ph.D. Students are working or have finished projects related to the CarbFix Project:
- Sandra Ósk Snæbjörnsdóttir - Ph.D. student - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Field injection experiments and storage capacity estimate. Ph.D. Supervisor: Sigurður Reynir Gíslason.
- Alexandra Murata (undergraduate student) - Columbia University
- Bailey Griswold (undergraduate student) - Columbia University
- Jennifer Hall (graduate student) - Columbia University
- Alexandra Bausch (lab technician) - Columbia University
- Alexander Gysi - Ph.D. student - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - apg2 (at) hi.is - Has defended thesis - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Experimental and numerical modelling of CO2-water-basalt interaction - Ph.D. Supervisor: Andri Stefansson
- Gabrielle J. Stockmann - Ph.D. graduate - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - gjs3 (at) hi.is - Defended thesis in May 2012 - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Experimental determination of the effect of precipitated mineral coatings on the rates of basaltic mineral and glass dissolution rates - Ph.D. Supervisor: Domenik Wolff-Boenisch, Sigurdur Gislason and Eric Oelkers
- Helgi Arnar Alfreðsson - Ph.D. student - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - haa4 (at) hi.is - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Characterization of the rocks and fluids, before and after CO2 injection, at the Hellisheidi Iceland site - Ph.D. Supervisor: Sigurdur Gislason, Björn Hardarson, Hjalti Franzson, Domenik Wolff-Boenisch, Andri Stefansson
- Iwona Galeczka - Ph.D. student - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - img3 (at) hi.is - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Experimental studies on the sequestration of CO2 in basaltic rocks - Ph.D. Supervisor: Domenik Wolff-Boenisch, Sigurdur Gislason, Andri Stefansson
- Kiflom Gebrehiwot Mesfin - Ph.D. student - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide from geothermal activities in seawater. - Ph.D. Supervisors: Domenik Wolff-Boenisch and Sigurdur Reynir Gislason
- Snorri Guðbrandsson - Ph.D. student - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - snorgud (at) hi.is - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Dissolution rates of crystalline basalt as a function of temperature, pressure and solution composition - Ph.D. Supervisor: Domenik Wolff-Boenisch, Sigurdur Gislason and Eric Oelkers
- Therese Kaarbo Flaathen - Ph.D. Graduate - Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland - therese (at) hi.is - Defended thesis in September 2009 - Title of Ph.D. Thesis: Natural analogue for CO2 fixation in basalt and the effect of sulphur on the dissolution rate of basalt and precipitation rate of carbonates - Ph.D. Supervisor: Sigurdur Gislason, Eric Oelkers
- Jonas Olsson – Ph.D. student - University of Copenhagen - jolsson (at)hi.is - Title of Ph.D. Thesis (working title): The mobility of heavy metals in natural waters. - Name of thesis supervisor: Susan Louise Svane Stipp and Sigurður Reynir Gíslason.
- Olivier BOSC – Ph.D. student - Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse - boscolivier (at) hotmail.com - Title of Thesis: Experimental characterization of carbonate precipitation rates and their application to carbon sequestration - Thesis supervisor: Dr. Eric H. Oelkers
- Julien Declercq - Ph.D. - Université Paul Sabatier - declercq (at) get.obs-mip.fr
The following M.Sc. students have finished projects related to CarbFix Project:
- Elísabet Vilborg Ragnheiðardóttir - M.Sc. Graduate, REYST - elisabet.vilborg.sigurdardottir (at) reyst.is - Defended thesis in January 2010 - Title of M.Sc. Thesis: Costs, Profitability and Potential Gains of the CarbFix Program
- Mahnaz Rezvani Khalil Abad - M.Sc. Graduate, University of Iceland - mar7 (at) hi.is - Defended thesis in September 2008 - Title of M.Sc. Thesis: Characterization of the Hellisheidi-Threngsli CO2 sequestration target aquifer by tracer testing
- Diana Fernandez de la Reguera – M.Sc. Graduate, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, US - diana (at) ldeo.columbia.edu - Title of Thesis: Monitoring and verification of geologic CO2 storage using tracer techniques - Ph.D. Supervisor: Jurg Matter, Martin Stute
- Luke Brough – M.Sc. Student, University of Waterloo/University of Copenhagen - lgbrough (at) gmail.com - Title: CO2 seqestration in basalt at ambient temperature and pressure - Supervisors: David Blowes, Richard Amos, Susan L. S. Stipp, Knud Dideriksen
- Inger Aaberg – M.Sc. Student, University of Copenhagen - iaaberg (at) nano.ku.dk - Title: Mineral carbonation of CO2 –characterization of olivines during and after reaction using high resolution techniques - Supervisors: Susan L. S. Stipp, Emil Makovicky, Knud Dideriksen
1. Why mineralogical storage of CO2?
In geological CO2 storage, CO2 is stored in deep underground formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers. Oil and gas reservoirs have naturally stored CO2 and other gases and fluids for millions of years without significant leakage. However, nothing is absolutely sure. Therefore, mineralogical CO2 storage is aimed at permanently storing CO2 in form of carbonate minerals. By bringing CO2 to its thermodynamic ground state, which is a carbonate mineral, potential health, safety and environmental risks are minimized.
2. Why basalt and why Iceland?
Basaltic rocks are one of the most reactive rock types of the Earth’s crust. Basaltic rocks contain reactive minerals and glasses with high potential for CO2 sequestration. More than 90% of Iceland is made of basalt. The process where CO2 from solidifying magma reacts with calcium from the basalt and forms calcite, occurs naturally and the mineral is stable for thousands of years in geothermal systems. Chemical weathering of basalts at the surface of the Earth is another example of carbon fixation in nature. The proposed experiment will aim at accelerating these natural processes.
3. What happens chemically when the injected CO2 enters the basaltic bedrock?
CO2 dissolves into the groundwater and the pH of the groundwater decreases as a first consequence of injedting CO2. This low pH groundwater leads to a large number of coupled chemical reactions including the dissolution of basalt which both neutralizes the acidic groundwater and leads to the precipitation of stable carbonate minerals and thus the permanent storage of the injected CO2.
4. How fast is the CO2 mineralization in the lab vs. field?
In the lab, McGrail et al. (2006) showed that exposing basalt samples from the Columbia River Basalt (USA) to CO2-saturated water yielded calcium carbonate mineral formation in four to six weeks and extensive mineralization within several months. The CO2 mineralization rate in the field is unknown today. This is the main motivation for the CarbFix project, to conduct the field injection experiment and to monitor the CO2 mineralization rate in situ in the field.
5. How do we know that the CO2 injected will stay captured and not leak into the atmosphere?
The injected CO2 will be monitored and the storage safety will be verified by a set of technologies. These monitoring technologies (e.g. CO2 detectors, soil gas analysis, seismic survey, pressure monitoring, geochemical tracers in groundwater etc.) are critical to measure the amount of CO2 stored at a specific sequestration site, to monitor potential leaks, to track the location of the underground CO2 plume, to detect chemical reaction between CO2, groundwater and rocks, and to verify that the CO2 is stored in a permanent way.
6. What is the status of CO2 mineral storage in the world, is it only happening in Iceland?
Iceland is the ideal place to develop the technology to store CO2 in the subsurface as stable carbonate minerals for several reasons including:
1) Iceland is made up of basalt, a rock that contains abundant divalent metal cations, such as Ca (calsium), Fe (iron) and Mg (magnesium), which are the building blocks for making stable carbonate mineral.
2) Iceland is among the few countries that has the scientific and engineering know-how, due to their long experience in geothermal energy to perform a successful field scale test and develop the technology to export the new technology developed from the CarbFix program.
Besides the CarbFix project in Iceland, the Big Sky Regional Partnership, one of the seven U.S. Department of Energy partnerships for carbon capture and sequestration, is conducting a CO2 injection pilot test in the Columbia River Basalt in NW of the United States to study the in situ mineralization of CO2 (http://www.bigskyco2.org/).
7. Where are the good mineralogical CO2 storage sites?
The mineralization of CO2 requires the availability of divalent cations such as Ca (calsium) , Mg (magnesium), and Fe (iron). Basaltic and peridiotic rocks consist of minerals rich in Ca, Mg and Fe and are therefore ideal for mineralogical storage of CO2. Basalt is the one of the common rock type in Earth’s crust. Over 10% of the continental crust is made up of basalts. Perhaps even more exciting is that most continents are surrounded by massive basalt formations (oceanic crust), just offshore, providing local CO2 storage sites easily accessible for most countries. Basalt formations onshore and offshore together have sufficient storage capacity to contain all human produced CO2 for the foreseeable future.
The universities have enrolled PhD students to work on science projects in the laboratory as well as in the field, closely linked to the CarbFix project.
The reduction of industrial CO2 emissions is considered one of the main challenges of this century. To address this challenge, the CarbFix project is designed to optimize industrial methods for storing CO2 in basaltic rocks through a combined program consisting of, field scale injection of CO2 charged waters into basaltic rocks, laboratory based experiments, large scale plug-flow experiments, study of natural CO2 waters as natural analogue and state of the art geochemical modelling. A second and equally important goal of this research project is to generate the human capital and expertise to apply the advances made in this project in the future.
This research program includes:
1. Field scale injection of CO2 charged waters into basaltic rocks at the Hellisheidi natural laboratory. The Hellisheidi natural laboratory, situated in the Hengill area, SW Iceland, comprises ideal conditions for studying the feasibility of permanent CO2 storage as minerals in basaltic rocks due to availability of CO2 and water, the presence of fresh basalts, suitable geological structures, and an extensive infrastructure.
2. Laboratory experiments research program. The emphasis of this experimental program is to quantify basalt dissolution and carbonate precipitation rates stemming from during CO2 injection.
3. Large scale plug flow experiments. The plug flow reactors will be used to fine tune reactive transport models and they might provide an industrial method for fixing CO2.
4. Studies of natural CO2–rich water reactivity as natural analogue to the behaviour of injected CO2. A significant number of natural sites have experienced basalt interaction with CO2 charges waters. Studies of these systems provide insight into the long-term stability of basalt hosted CO2 storage.
5. Geochemical modelling. Geochemical modelling will be performed to interpret laboratory experiments and field work as well as to predict/optimize the long-term behaviour of CO2 injection sites.
Details and results of this research program, including regular updates, can be found on this website.
Alfredsson, H.A., Hardarson, B.S., Franzson, H., Gislason, S.R. (2008). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rock at the Hellisheidi site in SW Iceland:Stratigraphy and chemical composition of the rocks at the injection site. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 1-5.
Alfredsson H. A., Oelkers E. H., Hadrarson B. S., Franzson H., Gunlaugsson E. and Gislason S. R. (2013) The geology and water chemistry of the Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland carbon storage site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 12, 399–418.
Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L. and Jónsson H. I. (2012a) Development and evaluation of a thermodynamic dataset for phases of interest in CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Chem. Geol. 304–305, 26–38.
Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L., Björnsson G. and Jónsson H. (2012b) Multidimensional reactive transport modeling of CO2 mineral sequestration in basalts at the Hellisheidi geothermal field, Iceland. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control9, 24-40.
Domenik Wolff-Boenisch, Wenau, S., Gislason, S, and Oelkers, E. H. 2011 Dissolution of basalts and peridotite in the presence of organic and inorganic ligands, in seawater and under pCO2 pressure at 25°C. Implications for mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochima Acta 75, 5510-5525.
Domenik Wolff-Boenisch. (2011). On the buffer capacity of CO2-charged seawater used for carbonation and subsequent mineral sequestration. Energy Procedia, 4, 3738–3745.
Edda S. P. Aradóttir, Hólmfríður Sigurðardóttir, Bergur Sigfússon and Einar Gunnlaugsson 2011. CarbFix: a CCS pilot project imitating and accelerating natural CO2 sequestratioon. Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1: 105-118.
Elísabet Ragnheiðardóttir, Hólmfríður Sigurðardóttir, Helga Kristjánsdóttir and William Harveyd 2011. Opportunities and challenges for CarbFix: An evaluation of capacities and costs for the pilot scale mineralization sequestration project at Hellisheidi, Iceland and beyond. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 5: 1065–1072.
Flaathen, T.K., Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R. (2008). The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rates. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 39-41.
Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R. and Oelkers E.H. (2009). Chemical evolution of the Mt. Hekla, Iceland, groundwaters: A natural analogue for CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Applied Geochemistry, 24, 463-474.
Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., 2010. The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rates. Chem. Geol. 277, 345–354.
Flaathen T. K., Oelkers E. H., Gislason S. R. and Aagaard P. (2011) The effect of dissolved sulphate on calcite precipitation kinetics and consequences for subsurface CO2 storage. Energy Procedia 4, 5037–5043.Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2011. CO2–water–basalt interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4728–4751.
Gabrielle J. Stockmann, D. Wolff-Boenisch, S. R. Gíslason & E. H. Oelkers. (2011). Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 1: Basaltic glass. Chemical Geology 284, 306–316.
Gabrielle J. Stockmann, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Pascale Benezeth, Nicolas Bovet, Sigurdur R. Gislason, Eric H. Oelkers. Does the presence of heterotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas reactans affect basaltic glass dissolution rates?. Chemical Geology 296-297 (2012) 1-18.
Gislason, S.R., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Stefansson, A., Oelkers, E.H., Gunnlaugsson, E., Sigurdardottir, H., Sigfusson, B., Broecker, W.S., Matter, J.M., Stute, M., Axelsson, G. and Fridriksson, T. (2010). Mineral sequestration of carbon. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, 537-545.
Gudbrandsson, S., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H.(2008). Dissolution rates of crystalline basalt at pH 4 and 10 and 25-75°C. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 155-158.
Gysi, A.P. and Stefánsson, A. (2008). Numerical modelling of CO2-water-basalt interaction. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 55-59.
Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2012a. CO2-water-basalt interaction. Low temperature experiments and implications for CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 81, 129-152.
Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2012b. Mineralogical aspects of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration - An experimental study at 75 to 250 °C and elevated pCO2. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 146–159.
Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2012c. Experiments and geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 10–28.Helgi A. Alfredsson, D. W. Boenisch and A. Stefánsson. (2011). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks in Iceland: Development of a piston-type downhole sampler for CO2 rich fluids and tracers. Energy Procedia 4, 3510–3517.
J.M. Matter, Broecker, W., Gislason, S. R., Gunnlaugsson, E., Oelkers, E., Stute, M., Sigurdardóttir, H., Stefansson, A., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Axelsson, G., Sigfússon, B. (2011). The CarbFix Pilot Project – Storing Carbon Dioxide in Basalt. Energy Procedia 4, 5579–5585.
Matter, J.M., Broecker, W.S., Stute, M., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., Stefansson, A., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gunnlaugsson, E., Axelsson, G. and Bjornsson, G. (2009). Permanent Carbon Dioxide Storage into Basalt: The CarbFix Pilot Project, Iceland. Energy Procedia, 1, 3641-3646.
Oelkers E.H., S.R. Gislason, and J. Matter (2008). Mineral Carbonation of CO2, Elements, Vol. 4, 331-335.
Rezvani Khalilabad, M., Axelsson, G. and Gislason, S.R. (2008). Aquifer characterization with tracer test technique; permanent CO2 sequestration into basalt, SW Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 121 125.
Stockmann, G., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H. (2008). Dissolution of diopside and basaltic glass: the effect of carbonate coating. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 135-139.
Snorri Gudbrandsson, Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gislason, S. R., and Oelkers, E. H. 2011. An experimental study of crystalline basalt dissolution from 2 = pH = 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75°C. Geochimica Cosmochima Acta 75, 5496-5509.
Stockmann, G.J., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., 2013. Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics?
2: Diopside. Chemical Geology 337–338, 55-66.
Flaathen, T.K. 2009. Water-rock interaction during CO2 sequestration in basalt. Oddi, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2009 ISBN: 978-9979-9914-1-0.
Gysi, A.P. 2011. CO2-water-basalt Interaction: Reaction Path Experiments and Numerical Modeling. University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 188 pp., ISBN 978-9935-9038-1-5.
Stockmann, G.J. 2012. Experimental study of Basalt carbonatization. Ph.D. thesis, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, ISBN 978-9935-9038-4-6, 160 pp.
Rezvani Khalilabad, M. 2008. Characterization of the Hellisheidi-Threngsli CO2 sequestration Target Aquifer by Tracer Testing. Oddi, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2008. ISBN: 978-9979-68-252-3. ISSN: 1670-7427
Ragnheidardottir, E.V. 2010. Costs, Profitability and Potential Gains of the CarbFix Program. pp 107.
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Description of the logo
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has become a major issue in the wake of global warming and discussions on effective actions that have to be implemented to reduce the impact of industrial activities on the climate. There are different CCS approaches, however, and a principal aspect of my design was to visualize and transmit the solidness of the CarbFix project in the sense of precipitating solid CO2 as carbonate underground, quite the contrary to the commonly encountered trapping of gaseous CO2 in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The fundamental difference lies in the physical state of the sequestered CO2 with all implications as to long-term safety and reliability of these different CCS techniques.
Thus, the notion of solidity is a crucial feature distinguishing this project from other CCS plans and in order to visualize this key point a rectangle was placed in the centre of the logo. A filled rectangle conveys best this impression of hardness/strength of a solid phase quite in contrast to a gas. This element points evidently downwards and can be interpreted as representing the wells and the CO2-supersaturated fluid phase that is pumped underground. The subsequent carbon mineralization process is also insinuated by stark black letters.
In order for the logo not to appear too static, however, I added a ring to the design. This ring has two functions: It depicts the surface that has to be intersected/drilled to get down to the repository and thus puts the tilted bar into context by giving it an orientation. At the same time the ring as well as the change in its width conveys movement to the logo. This dynamics is another essential feature of the CarbFix project as it includes not only a cooperation between industry and academia but between different countries and this cooperation entails a continuous flux of know-how and experimental results in order to find the best possible solution to this challenging project. As to the chosen colors, the green color is very typical of Icelandic moss and grey/black are ubiquitous colors in the volcanic countryside. Both colors are therefore intimately related to the storage environment of this pilot study, i.e., Icelandic basaltic rocks.
Designed by Marijo Murillo Graphic Designer (email@example.com)